This creates a holistic view of the environment, an important capability illustrated in the figure. Hervé Panetto, Salah Baïna, Gérard Morel (2007). The Chief Information Officers Council (1999). Eventually an enterprise architecture repository was created at the macro level by the Zachman framework and at a cell level by the meta-model outlined below.[39]. For example, the constraints of higher rows affect the rows below. The framework does not define a methodology for an architecture. It was published in the system journal of IBM under the name — A framework for information systems architecture.Zachman worked for IBM from 1964-1990, serving as one of the founding developers of IBM’s Business Systems Planning (BSP). The basic model of each column is uniquely defined, yet related across and down the matrix. It has a matrix representation, with six rows (scope contexts, business concepts, system logic, technology physics, component assemblies, operations classes) and six columns (what, how, where, who, when, why). This methodology required defining all aspects of the VA enterprise from a business process, data, technical, location, personnel, and requirements perspective. This section provides an introduction to the Zachman Framework, and contains the formal documentation defining its use with Enterprise Architect. This framework is explained as, for example: Beside the frameworks developed by John Zachman, numerous extensions and/or applications have been developed, which are also sometimes called Zachman Frameworks, however they generally tend to be graphical overlays of the actual framework itself. It is the integration of answers to these questions that enables the comprehensive, composite description of complex ideas. TEAF Work Products for EA Direction, Description, and Accomplishment. Zachman states that “The Framework for Enterprise Architecture is a two dimensional classification scheme for descriptive representations of an Enterprise.” The vertical dimension (the rows) describes the perspectives of those who use the models or descriptions contained in the cells. [26], The framework comes with a set of rules:[30]. The Who, When and Why columns were brought into public view, the notion of the four levels of metaframeworks and a depiction of integration associations across the perspectives were all outlined in the paper. Further modeling by mapping between columns in the framework identifies gaps in the documented state of the organization.[12]. Without row-six the Framework only identifies sunk-cost, but the row-six ROI permits it to measure benefits and to be used in a continuous improvement process, capturing best practices and applying them back through row-two. [12] Some feel that following this model completely can lead to too much emphasis on documentation, as artifacts would be needed for every one of the thirty cells in the framework. The Zachman Framework is a schema - the intersection between two historical classifications that have been in use for literally thousands of years. The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture: ... It’s designed for the U.S. government, but it can also be applied to private companies that want to use the framework. Geiger, 1997. [18] Also in 1992: In the 1997 paper "Concepts of the Framework for Enterprise Architecture" Zachman explained that the framework should be referred to as a "Framework for Enterprise Architecture", and should have from the beginning. When done by IT the lower level of focus is on information technology, however it can apply equally to physical material (ball valves, piping, transformers, fuse boxes for example) and the associated physical processes, roles, locations etc. [26], In the 1997 Zachman Framework the rows are described as follows:[26], In summary, each perspective focuses attention on the same fundamental questions, then answers those questions from that viewpoint, creating different descriptive representations (i.e., models), which translate from higher to lower perspectives. SABSA (Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture) is an operational risk management framework that includes an array of models and methods to be used both independently and as a holistic enterprise architecture solution. Examples: Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture, TOGAF, DODAF, MODAF, FEAF Based on the semantic definitions (above) that most closely reflect the usage of the term framework in reference to EA, the key elements are ‘structure,’ ‘simplifying a complex entity,’ and ‘model.’ 2. If it is implicit, the risk of making assumptions about these cells exists. Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement (ZIFA). Zachman Framework is also used as a framework to describe standards, for example standards for healthcare and healthcare information system. The hard job then followed to de-conflict the data definitions and resolve duplicative implementations of the same business function. It can refer to any of the frameworks proposed by John Zachman: In other sources the Zachman Framework is introduced as a framework, originated by and named after John Zachman, represented in numerous ways, see image. [14], In the 1987 article "A Framework for Information Systems Architecture"[15] Zachman noted that the term "architecture" was used loosely by information systems professionals, and meant different things to planners, designers, programmers, communication specialists, and others. An upper row or perspective does not necessarily have a more comprehensive understanding of the whole than a lower perspective. Once identified, duplication of function and inconsistency in data definition can be identified and resolved, . Zachman, & J.G. Within a government organization the framework can be applied to an entire agency at an abstract level, or it can be applied to various departments, offices, programs, subunits and even to basic operational entities.[32]. The Zachman Framework has evolved in its thirty-year history to include: In other sources the Zachman Framework is introduced as a framework, originated by and named after John Zachman, represented in numerous ways, see image. If the assumptions are valid, then time and money are saved. Progressing through the rows from top to bottom, one can trace-out the. It has a matrix representation, with six rows (scope contexts, business concepts, system logic, technology physics, component assemblies, operations classes) and six columns (what, how, where, who, when, why). This methodology required them to define all aspects of the VA enterprise from a business process, data, technical, location, personnel, and requirements perspective. Zachman, 1992, and Inmon, W.H, J.A. If you can answer all of these six questions, then you can derive answers to any other questions about the subject or object. [26] In addition, the six categories of enterprise architecture components, and the underlying interrogatives that they answer, form the columns of the Zachman Framework and these are:[24], In Zachman’s opinion, the single factor that makes his framework unique is that each element on either axis of the matrix is explicitly distinguishable from all the other elements on that axis. Hervé Panetto, Salah Baïna, Gérard Morel (2007). Another application of the Zachman Framework is as reference model for other enterprise architectures, see for example these four: EAP mapped to the Zachman Framework, 1999. [26], Each perspective must take into account the requirements of the other perspectives and the restraint those perspectives impose. The current version (3) of the Zachman Framework categorizes the rows as follows: In summary, each perspective focuses attention on the same fundamental questions, then answers those questions from that viewpoint, creating different descriptive representations (i.e., models), which translate from higher to lower perspectives. If the assumptions are valid, then time and money are saved. However this tool permitted defining entities and relationships and for defining properties upon both entities and relationships, which made it sufficient for building an EA repository, considering the technology that was available in early 2003. TEAF Work Products for EA Direction, Description, and Accomplishment. An automaker, whose business goals may necessitate an inventory and process-driven focus, could find it beneficial to focus their documentation efforts on What and How columns. Somewhere in between the VA Zachman Framework Portal was constructed. Getting Zachman Certified is dollar-for-dollar the smartest investment an architect, any architect, can make. The constraints of lower rows can, but do not necessarily affect the higher rows. Abstract - An effective Enterprise Architecture framework can help an organization or an enterprise deal with the ever-changing business and technology needs and Zachman Framework is one such Enterprise Architecture framework. The framework provides six increasingly detailed views or levels of abstraction from six different perspectives. Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a discipline which has evolved to structure the business and its alignment with the IT systems. The Zachman framework provides a means of classifying an organisation’s architecture. The Zachman Framework The intent of The Enterprise Framework is to provide a more “human consumable” understanding of the artifacts required in Enterprise Architecture, provide templates and definitions of all of the artifacts required, and provide the Enterprise Architecture community with complete guidance on all of the framework content. If it is implicit, the risk of making assumptions about these cells exists. Durward P. Jackson (1992). The Zachman Framework isn’t exactly a methodology, at least not in the way most IT management frameworks are, mainly because it doesn’t offer specific processes for handling data. The refined models or designs supporting that answer are the detailed descriptions within the cell. Understanding the requirements and constraints necessitates communication of knowledge and understanding from perspective to perspective. [18] Also in 1992: John Zachman’s co-author John Sowa proposed the additions of the Scope perspective of the ‘planner’ (bounding lists common to the enterprise and its environment) and the Detailed Representation perspective of the ‘sub-contractor’ (being the out of context vendor solution components). The Framework points the vertical direction for that communication between perspectives.[26]. Findings Based on the findings, a method is proposed through which EA can be implemented in an organisation by using the Zachman Framework. It may be employed in the (in that time considered more esoteric) areas of enterprise architecture, data-driven systems design, data classification criteria, and more. The level of detail in the Framework is a function of each cell (and not the rows). The Zachman framework, like many others, considers multiple perspectives of an enterprise. Once identified, duplication of function and inconsistency in data definition can be identified. 2.3 Zachman Framework Zachman Framework was surveyed to be the most popular [18]. Vladan Jovanovic et all (2006) presents a Zachman Cube, an extended of the Zachman Framework into a multidimensional Zachman’s Cube. The Zachman framework was the brainchild of John Zachman in 1987, becoming a widely used approach for engineering Enterprise Architecture. These perspectives are represented in a two-dimensional matrix that defines along the rows the type of stakeholders and with the columns the aspects of the architecture. Zachman defines 7 rules for using his framework. (Why) Goal List – primary high level organization goals, (How) Process List – list of all known processes, (What) Material List – list of all known organizational entities, (Who) Organizational Unit & Role List – list of all organization units, sub-units, and identified roles, (Where) Geographical Locations List – locations important to organization; can be large and small, (When) Event List – list of triggers and cycles important to organization, (Why) Goal Relationship Model – identifies hierarchy of goals that support primary goals, (Who) Organizational Unit & Role Relationship Model – identifies enterprise roles and units and the relationships between them, (Where) Locations Model – identifies enterprise locations and the relationships between them, (When) Event Model – identifies and describes events and cycles related by time, (Why) Rules Diagram – identifies and describes rules that apply constraints to processes and entities without regard to physical or technical implementation, (Who) Role Relationship Diagram – identifies and describes roles and their relations to other roles by types of deliverables without regard to physical or technical implementation, (Where) Locations Diagram – identifies and describes locations used to access, manipulate, and transfer entities and processes without regard to physical or technical implementation, (Why) Rules Specification – expressed in a formal language; consists of rule name and structured logic to specify and test rule state, (How) Process Function Specification – expressed in a technology specific language, hierarchical process elements are related by process calls, (What) Data Entity Specification – expressed in a technology specific format; each entity is defined by name, description, and attributes; shows relationships, (Who) Role Specification – expresses roles performing work and workflow components at the work product detailed specification level, (Where) Location Specification – expresses the physical infrastructure components and their connections, (When) Event Specification – expresses transformations of event states of interest to the enterprise, The TEAF matrix is called a customization sample, see. 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