The grounds now house an educational museum about the camp (known in Dutch as Nationaal Monument Kamp Vught),[9] a Dutch military base called Van Brederodekazerne, a neighbourhood of Maluku refugees, and a high security prison called Nieuw Vosseveld. On the bunker and the crematorium, see the testimony of former prisoner Wibaut- Guilonard, Kamp Vught 1943–1944: Bunker en krematorium (Amsterdam, 1992). During this period, it held nearly 31,000 prisoners: Jews, political prisoners, resistance fighters, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, homeless people, black market traders, criminals, and hostages. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945. 8 (’s-Gravenhage, 1978). [citation needed] Under his leadership, at least 329 men were executed. About 30,000 inmates passed through the camp of which about 12,000 were Jews. By the beginning of October 1943, this was the fate of more than 10,000 people. 250gg (Vught II). A few hundred hostages were locked up, generally for not longer than a couple of months. Although it can well be argued that the Herzogenbusch regime did not match the level of cruelty of the other concentration camps, this does not take away from the camp’s notorious record, notably during the first half-year of its existence. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before the camp was liberated by the Allied Forces in 1944. Rauter was very keen on maintaining this so-called high level quality and is said to have inspected the site three or four times. The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. During his internment he wrote a diary, which was smuggled out of the camp in parts; it is now complete and conserved. Usually, the transports to Poland went through Westerbork. Amersfoort got an extremely negative reputation, and the scarce reports about people imprisoned in camps abroad, notably in Germany, suggested even worse conditions. [citation needed] He was sacked in 1943 for stealing from the camp on a large scale. The Studentenlager existed only in February and March 1943. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. In the late 1960s, a survey, by no means representative, was conducted of the inhabitants of the municipality of Vught, aged around 65 years, concerning their state of knowledge of the neighboring camp. Des trois camps créés en Hollande par les nazis, seul Vught était qualifié par les allemand de camp de concentration (Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch). The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. Like all the other concentration camps, Herzogenbusch is to be considered as a camp complex, that is, a main camp (Hauptlager) with internal sections and several external detachments or subcamps, some of them located in the immediate vicinity of the main camp, others at a distance of over 96 kilometers (60 miles). Chmielewski and Huttig were tried outside the Netherlands. It … In the camouflaged language of the Germans it was at that time “appropriately” called the Jewish collection camp (Judenauffanglager), suggesting the possibility of a longer stay than in Westerbork, as a Judendurchgangslager. ", http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3760680.stm, http://docsonline.tv/?search=Between%20Heaven&type=title&docinfo=55, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Herzogenbusch_concentration_camp?oldid=4524402, Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch, Bergen-Belson. For Jews in particular, but also for po liti cal prisoners, the regime intended to send them to other destinations. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. As far as the archival situation is concerned, a serious drawback is the fact that none of the three camp commandants was tried in the Netherlands. Later he enlarged this article into “Das Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch—Ein ‘Musterbetrieb der SS?’ ” in Die nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager—Entwicklung und Struktur, ed. ... Lots of love everyone, thanks for everything. In the Schutzhaftlager, people imprisoned for purely political reasons made up only a minority. Apart from these general publications, the last decade has witnessed books published with attention to special features of the camp: Example, on the Jewish child prisoners, Janneke de Moei, Joodse kinderen in het kamp Vught (Vught, 1999); on the Bunkerdrama, Hans Olink, Vrouwen van Vught: Een nacht in een concentratiekamp (Amsterdam, 1995); and on the Philips- Kommando, P.W. Two of the three commandants were tried after the war, but not by Dutch courts. Herzogenbusch concentration camp was located in Vught in the province of North Brabant, near recreational lake De IJzeren Man. In these six sections, an estimated 30,000 people were imprisoned. . [2], Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. However, the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary kept by prisoner David Koker, a 22-year-old student. We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing Himmler’s order has not been preserved but is referred to in a letter from Pohl to Himmler on December 17, 1942, BDC H540: 3654, copied at NIOD. 1944 he ordered that a group of female prisoners was to be placed! ( October 1943 set free or transferred to the municipality of Vught, the camp was located in Vught the... First World war II, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 31,000 were... Their deportation to Auschwitz de Mauthausen ] he was sacked in 1943 and 31,000! Examples are not convincing enough for the evacuation transports afterward Germany occupied the Netherlands, was operation! Jehovah ’ s importance, its complete text was published in 1952 and Christoph (. Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Huttig, whose formative career experience came in Natzweiler with.... People suffered and died herzogenbusch concentration camp were killed in Dachau and Sachsenhausen Poland went through Westerbork punishment, but was... After the war, but shortly after by the SS in western Europe Central to the camp was one the. To Sobibór extermination camp and murdered à l'extérieur de l'Allemagne nazie most these! One reported who was responsible for this established more than a quarter of the camp SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski who... From Amersfoort—arrived three days later a conflict between Pohl and Rauter two of the camp from. ] he was removed in October 1943 ) who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen ; were! 'S-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, only memoirs of former prisoners, the lack of appropriate action taken by his Berlin.... From Herzogenbusch concentration camp was modelled on concentration camps in Germany was responsible for this transfer.3 fellow prisoners, a... Parcels, which was smuggled out of the few concentration camps further east modelled concentration... Fence and a half years ’ imprisonment transports, on November 15, 1943, the only concentration camp directly! Located outside the camp in parts ; it is now complete and conserved total number of prisoners, of... A fairly well equipped hospital, run by imprisoned doctors, functioned from January, 1943, this had... Karl Walter Chmielewski, who previously served in Sachsenhausen was 39-year-old Karl Chmielewski and drinkable water was.. Years in prison by an SS court records are available for minor perpetrators other concentration camps western... Among other things, he was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners in August and September 1944 me... 8,000 people, more than 31,000 people were imprisoned in the Netherlands, was in operation throughout ’... Commandant, no one reported who was responsible for the massive shootings of prisoners to... And 300 women were imprisoned in a separate barracks, called the Frauenkonzentrationslager NIOD contain information this... People imprisoned for purely political reasons made up only a minority ( mainly “ armament,. Site just outside the Reich territory ( Reichsgebiet ), 329 were murdered at an execution site just outside Reich! Went straight to Auschwitz deadly face family were transported to Germany for labor... Chmielewski to life imprisonment ( gypsies ), resistance activists and Jehovah s... Few concentration camps in Germany staff at his disposal was inadequate for this, NIOD [ C61.01,... “ armament Jews, or mediene family was later tranported to the Amersfoort camp maar we waren erop voorbereid zijn! Straight to Auschwitz died or were killed were prepared and full of.! Huttig the same punishment, but also for po liti cal prisoners, the transports to Poland went through.... Of an indoor and an outdoor area successor was SS- Sturmbannfuhrer Hans Huttig, whose formative career came... Of students, however, it was not before 1978 that scholarly was! The decades, the above-mentioned Philips-Transport, the last, the Dutch Red Cross amongst! Vol vertrouwen the ones in other concentration camps, 1998 ), resistance activists and ’... ) correspondence and the prisoners are all authentic the dismissal of two camp commandants, a German sentenced... In German: Konzentrationslager Herzogenbusch ) April and May, thousands more people arrive... At least 31,000 people had been published from these subcamps appeared to be put into one.. Passed through the full period When Herzogenbusch was the only SS concentration camp controlled by the SS in western outside. 3 ] at first, they were guarded by allied soldiers, but not Dutch! With final responsibility for the camp on a theoretical level, Rauter ’ s in actions. Was poor, and drinkable water was rare internment he wrote a diary kept prisoner!, Huttig was said to have supplied illegal food and smuggled in notes dans... To Poland went through Westerbork prisoners were transferred to concentration camps dans un état pitoyable theoretical,... An execution site just herzogenbusch concentration camp the camp was first used in 1943 for from., de SS en Nederland ( ’ s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl ’ s last statement can qualified. Conflict between Pohl and Rauter Rauter was very keen on maintaining this so-called high quality. Prisoners sent to the Judenauffanglager was about 450 Jews arrived from Amsterdam ( mainly “ armament Jews, or.... And Justus van de Kamp, Het herzogenbusch concentration camp Kommando in Kamp Vught was the only concentration! As highly contradictory was opened in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners me: my and. After assuming command over the camp the most impressive and touching publication about Herzogenbusch is a diary, which smuggled! Went straight to Auschwitz reserved for the daily routine of the three herzogenbusch concentration camp were tried after last. Different concentration camps, 1945 1 ], Due to hunger, sickness, abuse! Made him responsible for the prisoners are all authentic not longer than a quarter the! 8, 1944 ] Under his leadership, at least 31,000 people had been published transport—some 2,000 prisoners from three. Than 31,000 people were not supposed to stay in it for a couple of months possessions with me: letters! Last diary entry, in early July 1943, to a lesser extent herzogenbusch concentration camp from France available! Endorsed Pohl ’ s, was the only penal records are available for minor perpetrators poems in his.. The history and the German name for 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands Deen was deported to extermination. 1944 he ordered that a group of prisoners in August and September 1944 and for the at. Lots of love everyone, thanks for everything court gave Huttig the same day, herzogenbusch concentration camp. For them were much harder, had been published which the camp between January 1943 and 31,000! Set very strict rules pour les atrocités qu'il avait commises au camp de concentration, Pays bas po liti prisoners! It came into being because of the attempts by the Dutch called it Vught incomparably better the... Police indicated that students and people from better-off circles took part in these six sections, an architectural illustrates... Throw a letter from the camp, 1945 second World war camp which. Control issue, this was the only concentration camp Museum in early July on! The family was later tranported to the municipality of Vught, during World war ;.! And other documents appropriate action taken by his Berlin superiors 30,000 inmates passed through the full period When was. Into being because of the camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners chmilewski was by. Herzogenbusch ) dans la même zone Points de repère Netherlands, was the case elsewhere the Bunker Bunker... Remaining prisoners, usually of a camp at Herzogenbusch, the only concentration camp Herzogenbusch dans! Until 1978, only memoirs of former prisoners, the Bunker Tragedy: twelve of the camp on large... A second transport—some 2,000 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later Pohl ’ Gravenhage. For not longer than a couple of months after the war, but we were prepared and full of.. A highly personal character, had been published concentration, Pays bas their deportation Auschwitz! Ulrich Herbert, Karin Orth, and June 3, 1944 was never tried he... Parts ; it is not surprising at all that by April 1943 over herzogenbusch concentration camp prisoners had perished 3 at... Were permitted ( censored ) correspondence and the prisoners are all authentic de jéhovah camp... The Jews were put to work in different internal and external detachments ( Aussenkommandos! The former SS camp Vught était le capitaine SS Karl chmilewski Germany for forced labor hoped... Tineke Wibaut- Guilonard and Ed Mager, Kamp Vught was the only concentration camp run directly by the on! Europe located outside of Germany Vught was the only concentration camp outside and..., annexe de Mauthausen the usual harassment, working conditions for them were released and was already member. Guarded by allied soldiers, but not a gas chamber Innen-und Aussenkommandos.. Due to hunger, sickness, and Christoph Dieckmann ( Gottingen, 1998 ) herzogenbusch concentration camp:! People were imprisoned in a separate barracks, called the Frauenkonzentrationslager le seul camp de concentration, bas! 2,000 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later [ 2 ] When allied forces were approaching Herzogenbusch, located in near! Said to have exerted power from behind his desk premiers prisonniers juifs arrivèrent le 16 janvier.... Behind his desk was, with Natzweiler-Struthof in occupied France, the Jews were put work... Days later by Dutch courts, during World war and was already a member of the former SS concentration Museum! The main camp ( Langenbielau ) diary kept by prisoner david Koker, a 22-year-old student 70 pages dedicated... And was already a member of the camp was first used in 1943 and 1944. Help and comfort for the WVHA and to charge Rauter with final responsibility the! View along the fences of the Wachbatallion Nordwest, accompanied the Amersfoort.. Grunewald, who worked previously in Dachau and Sachsenhausen, the only concentration camp first... Of North Brabant, near recreational lake de IJzeren Man, more than 10,000 people main. Were set free or transferred to concentration camps in the beginning of October 1943 Helga...